Samuel George Morton: 1839
Claimed to have found the following differences in cranial capacity:
White brains > Native Americans brains > African brains
1) Initial results using flax seed showed large differences
2) Switched to metal shot – got much smaller differences
3) If you adjust for body size, differences are zero.
Paul Broca: 1862
1) Examined arm bone ratios: whites closer to apes, so abandoned this criterion
2) Examined brain size: abandoned upper end of scale because of white “inferiority”
3) Examined brains of criminals: they were larger
4) French v.s. Germans: correctly adjusted German brain size for body size.
5) Cro-Magnon compared with modern European populations-- abaondoned
6) Male vs Female: did not adjust for body size.