Samuel George Morton: 1839


Claimed to have found the following differences in cranial capacity:


White brains > Native Americans brains > African brains


1)     Initial results using flax seed showed large differences

2)     Switched to metal shot – got much smaller differences

3)     If you adjust for body size, differences are zero.


Paul Broca: 1862

1) Examined arm bone ratios: whites closer to apes, so abandoned this criterion

2) Examined brain size: abandoned upper end of scale because of white “inferiority”

3) Examined brains of criminals: they were larger

4) French v.s. Germans: correctly adjusted German brain size for body size. 

5) Cro-Magnon compared with modern European populations-- abaondoned

6) Male vs Female: did not adjust for body size.